ELECTRONIC NEWSLETTER OF THE HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS DIVISION OF THE AAS
Newsletter No. 69 November 1996
IN THIS ISSUE:
Notes from the Editor - K. Hurley
1996 Senior Review - G. Riegler
First Results from BEPPOSAX - L. Piro
CHIANTI Atomic Database - K. Dere
SEUS Web Page - F. Harrison
ACE Science Workshop - R. Mewaldt
Aspen Workshop on Gamma-Ray Bursts - D. Lamb
Obituaries - HETE, MARS 96, and CUBIC - HETE Team, K. Hurley, and D. Burrows
Notes from the Editor
by Kevin Hurley, Secretary-Treasurer (firstname.lastname@example.org)
This will be my last newsletter. The new secretary-treasurer will be Alan Marscher, Boston
University. His e-mail address is email@example.com.
The 1996 Senior Review
by Guenther Riegler
NASA used the recommendations from the Senior Review 1996 to prioritize and assign funding
among the eight programs considered. Since some previously unassigned funds were available
for assignment, it was possible to extend U.S. participation in the ISO project to FY00,
extend participation in ASCA to FY00, participation in ROSAT to FY99, and GRO and XTE to
We have now initiated a similar comparative review process for ten Space Physics MO&DA
programs, and will probably initiate a similar process for planetary science missions in
1997 or 1998.
Senior Review of
Astrophysics Mission Operations and
Data Analysis Programs
Chief Scientist, Research Program Management Division
Office of Space Science
Submitted by: J. N. Bregman, A. K. Dupree (Chair), D. J. Helfand,
S. Kulkarni, C. F. McKee, P. Szkody, P. A. Vanden Bout, D. W. Weedman
The 1996 Senior Review of Astrophysics Mission Operations and Data Analysis Programs was
convened on July 29-31, 1996. The Senior Review panel was charged with ranking the
expected scientific returns of eight Astrophysics missions -- ASCA, CGRO, EUVE, ISO,
ROSAT, SAX, SVLBI, and XTE -- for two periods of two years each: FY '97-'98 and FY
The paradigm of evaluating on the basis of "science per dollar", while
difficult, is necessary in an era when funds for space science are extremely limited. It
is sobering to realize that the drive for cost savings could lead to termination of
observatories while they are still obtaining valuable data, or to an early reduction of
operations immediately after prime phase. The scientific returns from these Astrophysics
missions are reduced in order to save an amount that is typically a few percent of the
cost to construct and launch the mission.
Although new missions will arrive bringing powerful new capabilities, satellites launched
previously remain vigorous and long-lived and their impressive scientific accomplishments
accumulate. A delicate balance must be achieved in order that the enthusiasm and high
interest of both astronomers and the public for space science discoveries proceeds
We note that a major shift has occurred in the missions considered by this Senior Review.
The majority of the missions, six out of nine, represent US access to observations from
the satellites of other nations. In the last Senior review only two out of eleven missions
were non-US. With non-US missions, US scientists are frequently able to obtain
observations which are scientifically outstanding and extremely cost-effective.
During its deliberations, the Committee arrived at a ranking of Astrophysics missions (see
accompanying table and Section III) as well as five general policy recommendations:
1. SCOPE OF CHARGE
The Committee believes that meaningful optimization of total scientific effort occurs only
when broad comparisons are possible.
The last Senior Review in 1994 requested that the 1996 Review "consider the full
range of science supported by the Astrophysics MO&DA program, including the LTSA, ADP,
and ATP programs." This activity was not scheduled for this Senior Review because we
concentrated on programs with near-term concerns, such as mission extensions or severe
underfunding. However, this Committee urges that such a charge be included in the scope of
the Astrophysics Senior Review in 1998.
In addition, we urge in the strongest terms that the relevant portions of the HST and AXAF
MO&DA budgets (including Science Center, Guaranteed Time Investigators, and Guest
Investigator funding) be included for review and prioritization along with the other
missions and programs in the next Astrophysics Senior Review Committee. It is simply not
possible to recommend an optimal distribution of precious funds for science exploitation
of astrophysics missions when the largest part of the budget is declared off-limits.
Finally, the MO&DA items for other missions not directly included for consideration
should also be provided to the Senior Review Committee so that the competed missions can
be evaluated in the context of the total program. We emphasize this scope since it is
clear the the diminishing MO&DA funds may require drastic recommendations. To make the
best use of restricted funds, the Astrophysics Senior Review should weigh all programs
rather than be bounded arbitrarily.
Given the newly unified Office of Space Science, our Committee urges that similarly
rigorous MO&DA comparisons be undertaken as soon as possible within each discipline in
OSS, so that in the future, Astrophysics missions are not subjected to stricter reviews
than other OSS missions.
2. MULTIPLE SOFTWARE SYSTEMS
The Committee is concerned about the proliferation of multiple software systems and the
resultant incompatibilities for reduction and analysis of mission data. Some of this
proliferation results from the access of US investigators to mission data from experiments
of other countries; other examples occur among NASA's own satellites. Such a situation not
only adds complexity, cost, and barriers to fast and efficient reduction and scientific
analysis of results for the Guest Observers, but also contributes to the overall support
costs of missions. Thus, less science is produced for the funds invested.
The Committee strongly urges that the activities of the former Science Operations MOWG for
Astrophysics be reinstated. Their careful scrutiny and oversight of the plans and
operations of the data handling and support for missions can bring pressure to bear for
similar and compatible software.
3. GUEST INVESTIGATOR PROGRAMS
For missions no longer in their prime phase, or missions without significant NASA
participation (e.g. ASCA, SAX, ROSAT, EUVE), this Review Committee recommends transferring
the funds for Guest Investigators into the ADP budget line. Although this recommendation
will require two proposals from a Guest Investigator for an ongoing mission, one for
observing time and another for funds, we believe that the opportunity to combine Guest
Investigator grants for analysis of data from different missions, and to access both
archival and new data will result in stronger scientific programs, and allow a GI to
propose for one program with continuity and scientific focus. The present schedule in
which proposals for observing time are due in the summer-fall, and the ADP program
deadlines occur the following January, also works well for GI's seeking funding for new
Addressing a related issue, the Committee believes that a program of Astrophysics Fellows,
perhaps similar to the Hubble Fellows, can lead to enhanced return on our investment in
space science missions. Outstanding young scientists, competitively selected, and allowed
to be independently creative, can broaden and enrich NASA's current research efforts. We
encourage NASA to explore the initiation of a such a broad Fellowship program.
4. COST EFFICIENT OPERATIONS
In past years, the Committee has encouraged individual missions to conserve allotted funds
in order to derive the most scientific benefit through an extended mission life. This
Committee endorses that philosophy, and asks NASA to reward such savings by allowing those
programs that have accumulated savings to use them for mission extensions.
5. REVIEW OF DATA CENTERS
The Committee believes it worthwhile to evaluate periodically the performance of all
science services in order to optimize their science usefulness and their cost
effectiveness. Specifically, the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the
High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive and Research Center (HEASARC) were set up in the
late 80's after recommendations from the science community. It is time now to initiate
periodic comparative reviews and/or recompetitions of all discipline and mission science
centers. These actions should assure that the science centers serve today's science needs,
use today's technology, and fit today's financial constraints.
III. COMMENTS ON INDIVIDUAL MISSIONS
Missions are listed in alphabetical sequence.
Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA)
The ASCA mission is an imaging spectroscopic telescope with large collecting area, that
has led to study of a broad range of astronomical objects at a relatively low cost because
satellite control and mission operations is provided by the Japanese ISAS. This mission
has made major contributions for a very wide range of astronomical sources. In the near
future, one of the prime science goals is the study of gas orbiting supermassive black
holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN), which will be accomplished by observing the shape
and time variation of the Fe K-alpha line. The gas scintillation proportional counters
(GSPCs), the primary instrument for hard sources, continue to operate without degradation.
Another important large project will be to understand the many bright but previously
unknown X-ray sources that were discovered by the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, only recently
released. Important observations are continuing to be obtained for supernova remnants,
X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, clusters of galaxies, stars, and AGNs. In addition
to their scientific value, these observations will be of significant assistance in
planning observations by future X-ray observatories such as AXAF and XMM.
The ASCA Guest Observer Facility has worked well with the Japanese team at ISAS to plan,
obtain, and distribute a large amount of data to a substantial user community.
For extended sources, the point spread function of the instrument complicates the
extraction of spectral quantities. Shortcomings in the calibration of the detectors at low
energies have hampered the analysis of spectra. The performance of the X-ray CCDs (the
SISs) has decreased in terms of the number of CCDs that can be used simultaneously and
their spectral resolution, although they continue to obtain valuable data.
ASCA continues to produce exceptional science, a situation that we expect to continue for
several years. The high ranking of this program (2/8) reflects the range of scientific
goals that are being addressed at moderate cost, due to the collaboration with the
Japanese. The program should be maintained at a vigorous level through the launch of AXAF,
and at a declining level through FY2000. We strongly encourage a continuation of efforts
to cross-calibrate ASCA with other current missions (i.e., XTE, EUVE, ROSAT, and SAX) and
with AXAF in 1998. Also, we recommend that important data products, such as spectra and
light curves, be produced by the ASCA GOF for access through the archive. It is
recommended that funds for analysis of new observations will be competed for through the
ADP program, which is being augmented to accommodate this need.
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)
CGRO covers six decades of frequency of the electromagnetic band, from about 30 keV to 30
GeV, and has brought gamma ray observations into the main stream of astronomy. Launched in
1991, CGRO has been responsible for many significant discoveries. Notable are the isotropy
of the gamma ray bursts (GRB), the discovery of gamma ray quasars, gamma ray pulsars,
direct detection of recently formed elements (nucleosynthesis), and mapping of the diffuse
emission from our Galaxy, from the Universe in the 511-keV annihilation line and the 26Al
lines. Long term studies of accretion powered pulsars and the discovery and follow-up of
X-ray transients have also been very productive enterprises.
The proposed future programs include the continued operation of all the instruments except
EGRET which has a lifetime of 1 year, limited by a consumable (spark-chamber gas). BATSE
detects, on average, about one burst a day. Over the next five years, the BATSE catalog
can be doubled to 3000 bursts and this may lead to new constraints on repetition (or lack
of it) and the burst distribution on large scales. By means of BACODINE, crude positions
of gamma ray bursts are made available on the Internet for prompt follow up at radio and
Continued imaging of the Galactic plane in the 26Al line by COMPTEL will improve the
significance of the detections. Imaging in the 44Ti line may show us sites of the youngest
supernovae. New transients keep appearing on the sky and CGRO is well suited to their
detection and detailed study. Finally, we note that GRO will be the only gamma-ray mission
that will be operational during the next solar maximum which starts in 1999, although the
Committee did not feel it had the competence to judge the scientific significance of this
Gamma ray sources are quite faint. Thus significant improvements in detection
sensitivities would require very long integration times and a mission duration comparable
to the prime time phase duration of five years. While BATSE will be useful for the
detection of new transients there are other recent missions that have significant overlap
in the area of transient detection and accretion powered pulsars. BATSE is quite limited
in its ability to localize Gamma-Ray Bursts, and it is unclear that the mystery of
Gamma-Ray Bursts will be resolved simply by increasing the size of the present sample.
CGRO has achieved, indeed exceeded, its stated goals, but it now is entering an era of
diminishing science returns. It is desirable to maintain the BATSE capability until there
is another mission available to address the nature of Gamma-Ray Bursts. Within this
priority, the four instruments aboard GRO should continue to operate as long as possible.
The Committee recommends that beginning in FY97, Instrument PI teams compete with Guest
Investigators for all science grants support.
The solar community needs to be consulted about the importance of observations with CGRO
during solar maximum.
It is crucial that efforts concentrate on techniques such as BACODINE that hold the
promise of individual source identifications. The Committee encourages the GRO Project to
maximize the effectiveness of the ground-based component of the BACODINE network.
The PI instrument teams should make a more vigorous effort to archive their data in a
useful way in the HEASARC. The instrument teams should work with the HEASARC to produce
software tools needed to access the archival GRO data.
Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE)
EUVE fills a unique spectral region that is replete with a rich spectrum of atomic and
ionic lines representing a wide sampling of energies from 10^4 to over 10^7K. Both
spectroscopy and photometry are possible covering the region 70 to 700A. During its prime
mission, followed by its extended mission phase, the scientific returns from EUVE have
been impressive. Significant contributions to many areas of astrophysics have resulted,
among them cool star coronas, hot star photospheres, white dwarf atmospheres, cataclysmic
variables, and the structure of the interstellar medium. Spectroscopy in the EUV region
provides a complement to low resolution observations of ASCA for point sources. EUVE has
developed innovative and cost-savings approaches to satellite operations, and has dealt
well with software, data distribution, and educational outreach.
Balanced against these strong points, the Committee finds that the scientific case for
extending the EUVE mission a second time is not as compelling in comparison to plans for
other missions in the competition. Many of the brightest targets accessible to EUVE have
been measured; remaining targets will require long integration times. Some of the programs
proposed for this EUVE extended mission could be carried out more effectively in other
For the final years of EUVE, the Committee encourages observations that focus on the
unique strengths of the mission, such as the study of nearby objects. The Committee
recommends that EUVE mission operations continue through FY'97. Funds for the EUVE Guest
Observer program will be distributed via the ADP program in order to allow analysis of
EUVE data alone or in conjunction with other observations. Given the present budget
constraints, only reduced funding for EUVE operations is available through FY97 unless
additional funds are found. Within available funds, EUVE should be encouraged to explore
ways to extend science observations as long as possible.
Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)
The ESA Infrared Space Observatory, launched in November 1995, is the major infrared space
mission of this decade. It has a complex suite of instruments for imaging, photometry, and
spectroscopy at various resolutions between 2.5 and 240 micron. Already, it has achieved
an extraordinary variety of observations affecting nearly all areas of astronomy. These
observations are providing insight into solar system objects, cool or obscured stars,
protostellar and protoplanetary regions, dusty and primeval galaxies, active galaxies, and
the chemistry of the interstellar medium in the Milky Way and other galaxies. Not only
will outstanding science be done, but this science will point the way to areas of infrared
astronomy which will be the most exciting frontiers for SIRTF and will produce a
knowledgeable community of US infrared astronomers to optimize the planning and use of
US astronomers participate in this billion dollar mission with guaranteed time as members
of ISO instrument teams and as members of US Key projects. In addition, a large number of
US astronomers (135 PIs from 56 institutions) successfully competed for ISO guest observer
time, receiving 34% of the available open time. The return to the US community will be
further enhanced by the significantly longer lifetime now anticipated for ISO (24 months
vs 16 months), which means there will be a second opportunity for proposals. In addition,
the support of proposals and data analysis provided in the US through IPAC enhances the
overall efficiency of US involvement, and allows the potential for longer term data
analysis and archiving tools that will benefit the entire ISO user community. In the
judgment of our Senior Review, ISO is proving an outstanding success, and we are extremely
pleased at the extent of involvement by US astronomers.
The ISO instruments are complex, sensitivity is lower than expected for some instruments,
and calibration is more difficult than expected because of on-orbit changes in the
detectors. Nevertheless, the interface provided by IPAC between US users and the European
instrumentation teams and the data analysis tools being developed at IPAC will eventually
lead to adequate results for US observers.
This 1996 Senior Review ranks ISO number one among the missions considered in terms of
scientific productivity relative to the NASA investment. In our view, the scientific
return can be greatly leveraged with further modest investments. For this reason, we
recommend an augmentation of both the data analysis funds for US Guest Observers as well
as for the science operations, data analysis, and archiving tools at IPAC.
The needs at IPAC are more urgent since these tools need to be developed in advance of the
actual observations. For the observers, the enhanced funding can await the time after
observations are actually obtained. Because of the unexpectedly large number of US users,
current staffing at IPAC cannot meet demand. Also, because of incomplete European plans
for a data archive, IPAC must begin developing an archive.
Consequently, we recommend that the FY 97 and FY 98 ISO-related funding for IPAC be at a
level of 3.6M (1M above the currently approved NASA plan for FY 97 and 0.8M above for FY
98), with the extra funding to be used only for archive development and support of US GTOs
and GOs. Augmentation is recommended for data analysis funding to GOs in FY 98 (1.8M
increase to 3.5M) and FY 99 (0.8M increase to 2.8M).
It appears that the cost per FTE is significantly higher at IPAC than at other data
centers we examined. We strongly urge IPAC to explore methods to reduce their cost per
The ROSAT mission has been extraordinarily effective in addressing many issues in X-ray
astronomy, at extremely low cost to NASA. ROSAT's unique capabilities - spatial resolution
of ~5 arcsec over a 40 arcmin field of view - justify continuing US participation in
observations. The large amounts of HRI observing time available enable acquisition of
extremely valuable high-resolution maps of large supernova remnants, crowded star
clusters, the Magellanic clouds and other nearby galaxies, and clusters of galaxies.
Having a large library of such pathfinder images in the ROSAT data base will greatly
increase the efficiency of AXAF.
The extensive set of unique PSPC observations is an irreplaceable trove of data on tens of
thousands of faint point sources, plus many complex extended emitting and absorbing
objects. It will be the basis for many studies of stellar and extragalactic astronomy,
diffuse x-ray emission, supernova remnants, and galactic structure. The ROSAT Bright
Source Catalog, which was recently released, includes a number of sources that can be
imaged with the HRI. The recent observation of X-rays from Comet Hyakutake demonstrates
ROSAT's continuing capability for making surprising discoveries.
With the loss of the PSPC, ROSAT has virtually no spectroscopic capability. ROSAT's
sensitivity is limited to soft x-rays.
ROSAT continues to provide an excellent opportunity to derive important and long-lasting
science at an unusually low cost to NASA. The Panel recommends funding for the US ROSAT
effort at approximately $1M/year for 1997-99. In addition, we recommend that some support
be given to Guest Investigators on ROSAT by allowing them to propose through the ADP
program. ROSAT should continue operation through the launch of AXAF, and the data archive
should be completed by the end of FY 99.
SAX - (Satellite per Astronomia X "Beppo"))
The unique capability of the Italian-Dutch BeppoSAX satellite is its ability to measure
simultaneously, with cross-calibrated instruments, the spectrum of both galactic and
extragalactic objects from 0.1 to over 100 keV. The principal science goals include
measurement of the broadband spectrum of AGN, broad-band spectral monitoring of galactic
X-ray binaries, and detection of X-ray (2-30 keV) counterparts to gamma-ray bursts using
the Wide Field Camera.
The effective area of the low and medium energy instruments is smaller than for other
current and near-future missions; e.g., the proposed studies of external galaxies,
supernova remnants, faint point sources, galaxies clusters, and stars are likely to be
made with ROSAT, ASCA, AXAF, XMM, and ASTRO-E. Timing observations of bright sources can
be better achieved with XTE. The approved US programs are, in general, good uses of SAX's
capabilities, but do not appear to offer breakthrough opportunities.
It is clear that the software situation needs improvement, although there seems to be a
path to providing both analysis software for US users and basic datasets for a usable
archive at relatively modest costs. Given the excellent record of the HEASARC in providing
cost-effective analysis tools and user-friendly archives, the Committee feels that
MO&DA funding for SAX should be focused there. The Committee believes that the
establishment of a SAX archive will give US scientists access to a valuable observational
capability and an important archive of high energy astrophysics data at extremely modest
cost. US SAX investigators should have an opportunity to propose to the ADP program for
support to carry out their SAX Guest Investigator programs.
Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI)
The Japanese VSOP mission provides a space radio telescope that together with an
international array of ground-based telescopes, comprises the first Space Very Long
Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) facility. The basic scientific strength of the mission
lies in the gain of a factor of three in angular resolution at the three operating
frequencies compared with ground-based arrays. This improvement in angular resolution
makes possible a number of important and interesting investigations. Examples include: a
test of the predicted limit to source brightness temperature imposed by inverse Compton
cooling, study of superluminal motions closer to the central engines of active galactic
nuclei (AGN), study of accretion disk structures on subparsec scales via H2O maser
emission, and imaging of galactic maser spot shapes.
Ground-based observations at the same spatial resolution provided by SVLBI, although at
higher frequencies and of admittedly poorer quality, have not yielded significant new
information on AGN's. The small size (8m) of the space element means the amount of
interesting science will be limited by the availability of the largest ground-based
telescopes and may be restricted to the brighter 100 sources of the roughly 1000 that can
be imaged by SVLBI.
The proposal requests data analysis support for only those PI's ineligible for NSF support
- (14) individuals at JPL, IPAC, and SAO. Data analysis is complex for SVLBI and will
require, at least initially, travel to NRAO-Socorro for training. Science support is
important for SVLBI scientists at Federally Funded Research and Development Centers
(FFRDC) who have been awarded observing time, and should be provided during the prime
phase of the VSOP mission.
Overall ranking of SVLBI in this Senior Review and the constraints of the budget argue for
funding at roughly one-third of the level requested.
Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE)
The Rossi-XTE is in the first year of its prime science mission, and the first 6 months of
operation have produced new and exciting results on the millisecond variability of neutron
stars, bursting pulsars and the long-term variability and spectra of AGN and X-ray
transients. The prime advantages of XTE over other X-ray missions are its capability for
observations on extremely short timescales, its broad bandpass, and its flexible
scheduling, which allows rapid observation of transient phenomena as well as long term
monitoring studies of variable X-ray sources. The All Sky Monitor provides the capability
for notification of new X-ray transients and the production of long term light curves for
bright sources. The panel was pleased with the rapid availability of 100% open time for
the entire community. The wide range of target capabilities has led to a large proposal
response from the scientific community.
The satellite and detectors were designed for observation of the brightest compact
sources, so targets at low flux levels (many ROSAT sources, galaxies, SNR) are not
suitable. The high and variable background is a limiting problem for many programs. No
argument is made for how many sources need to be observed to achieve the scientific
objectives (e.g. how many AGNs need to be observed, and for how long, in order to
significantly advance the field.) It is too early to tell if the detection of Millisecond
Quasi-Periodic Oscillators (MS QPOs) will solve fundamental problems with neutron stars or
are merely manifestations of neutron star "weather".
Since this mission is still operating in its prime phase, and is accomplishing its
expected science goals, the mission should be funded at adequate levels to ensure
operations and data analysis during its prime mission years. After year 2, the user
support should be reduced as expertise is transferred to the Guest Observers. At the next
Senior Review, a reassessment of the accomplishments in terms of remaining prime science
should be done. In light of the limited range of problems to be addressed by XTE and
extreme demands on available funding, FTE support must be reduced in future years.
Astrophysics Senior Review 1996
Numerical Rank Order of Eight Astrophysics MO&DA Programs
[Average of Panel Member rankings on a scale of 1 (highest rank) to 8]
Program 97-98 99-00
ISO 1.0 2.3
ASCA 2.8 2.5
ROSAT 3.8 4.3
XTE 4.0 4.5
GRO 4.8 4.6
SVLBI 6.0 5.3
SAX 6.5 5.1
EUVE 7.1 7.3
First Results from BEPPOSAX
L. Piro(*) on behalf of the BeppoSAX team
(*) BeppoSAX Mission Scientist
Istituto Astrofisica Spaziale, C.N.R., Via E. Fermi 21, 00044
The X-ray satellite BeppoSAX, a major programme of the Italian space agency (ASI) with
participation of the Dutch space agency (NIVR), was successfully launched from Cape
Canaveral on April 30, 1996. After a 2 month period devoted to engineering check out that
confirmed the nominal functionality of the satellite and the scientific payload, we have
performed a series of observations of celestial objects to calibrate the instruments and
verify their scientific performance. Here we will present some preliminary results
obtained in this phase on:
1) the X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 and the AGNs 3C273 and NGC 4151, as examples of the broad
spectroscopy of bright and weak sources,
2) the observation of the Galactic center to show the capabilities of monitoring wide
regions of the sky, and
3) some light curves of gamma-ray bursts.
They confirm the expected scientific capabilities of the mission.
The X-ray satellite SAX, named BeppoSAX after launch in honour of Giuseppe (Beppo)
Occhialini, is the first X-ray mission with a scientific payload covering more than three
decades of energy - from 0.1 to 300 keV - with a relatively large area, good energy
resolution, and with imaging capabilities (resolution of about 1 arcmin) in the range
0.1-10 keV. This capability, in conjunction with the presence of wide field instruments
primarily for discovering transient phenomena which can then be observed with the broad
band instruments, provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the broad band behaviour
of several classes of X-ray sources.
The broad band capability is provided by a set of instruments co-aligned with the Z axis
of the satellite; these Narrow Field Instruments (hereafter NFI) are:
MECS (Medium Energy Concentrator Spectrometers): a medium energy (1.3-10 keV) set of three
identical grazing incidence telescopes with double cone geometry (Citterio et al. 1985,
Conti et al. 1994), with position sensitive gas scintillation proportional counters in
their focal planes (Boella et al. 1996a).
LECS (Low Energy Concentrator Spectrometer): a low energy (0.1-10 keV) telescope,
identical to the other three, but with a thin window position sensitive gas scintillation
proportional counter in its focal plane (Parmar et al 1996).
HPGSPC, a collimated High Pressure Gas Scintillation Proportional Counter (4-120 keV,
Manzo et al. 1996).
PDS, a collimated Phoswich Detector System (15-300 keV, Frontera et al 1996)
Access to large regions of the sky (~1000 square degrees) with a resolution of 5' in the
range 2-30 keV is provided by two coded mask proportional counters (Wide Field Cameras,
WFC, Jager et al. 1996), perpendicular to the axis of the NFI and pointed in opposite
Finally, the anticoincidence scintillator shields of the PDS (GRBM) will be used as a
gamma-ray burst monitor in the range 60-600 keV with a fluence greater than about 10^-6
erg cm^-2 and with a temporal resolution of about 1 ms.
More details on the mission and its instruments can be found in Piro, Scarsi & Butler
(1995), Boella et al. (1996b), in the special session devoted to BeppoSAX of the SPIE Vol.
2517 and on line at:
2. The Science Verification Phase
The goal of the Science Verification Phase was to verify the expected scientific
capabilities of the mission and to calibrate the instruments. To this aim a series of
objects with well known properties were selected and observed.
2.1 Broad Band Spectroscopy with the NFI
2.1.1 The X-ray pulsar Vela X-1
Figure 1. The spectrum of Vela X-1 from the MECS, HPGSPC and PDS fitted with a power law
with exponential cut-off. The residuals show the presence of an iron line and absorption
edge as well as an absorption feature around 60 keV.
Figure 2. The best fit to the Vela X-1 spectrum obtained with a power law with 2 cyclotron
lines at about 30 and 60 keV, an iron line and absorption edge (see text).
In figure 1 we show the spectrum of the X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 in the range 3-200 keV
obtained in a 30 ksec observation with the MECS, HPGSPC and PDS. The data are fitted with
a power law with absorption and an exponential cutoff. The residuals show large deviations
from the model. The most noticeable are those due to the presence of an iron line and
absorption edge in the 6-8 keV region and an absorption feature around 60 kev. Following
the results from GINGA (Mihara 1995) we fit the spectrum with a power law with two
cyclotron absorption lines, plus an iron line and iron edge. This model provides a
satisfactory fit to the data (figure 2). The values of the cyclotron lines are remarkably
similar to those obtained by Mihara in a fit employing the same model. The first line is
at around 27 keV, with an optical depth of about 0.2, whereas the optical depth of the
second harmonic at 54 keV is about 10 times larger. The two lines are rather broad, being
respectively about 15 keV and 35 keV. Further analysis is ongoing to study different
models and phase-resolved spectra.
2.1.2 The AGN 3C273 and NGC 4151
Figure 3. The spectrum of 3C273 by the LECS, MECS, and PDS fitted with a simple power law
One of the scientific objectives of BeppoSAX is to measure the broad band spectrum of
relatively faint sources such as AGNs. In figure 3 we show the spectrum of 3C273 observed
with the LECS, MECS and PDS fitted with a simple power law with absorption. This BeppoSAX
observation is a joint program with RossiXTE and ASCA aimed at cross-calibrating the
The X-ray spectrum of NGC 4151 is the most complex observed so far in AGNs, being
characterized by narrow and broad spectral features from soft to hard X-rays (e.g. Perola
et al. 1986, Warwick et al. 1995, Zdziarski et al. 1996). It is thus the best candidate to
verify the unique capability of BeppoSAX to disentangle spectral features over the 0.1-200
keV energy range.
Figure 4. The spectrum of NGC 4151 observed by the LECS, MECS and PDS (from left to right)
fitted with a complex model: a power law, a soft X-ray component, a complex absorbing
medium, and a high energy cut-off.
Figure 5. The spectrum of NGC 4151 in the MECS around the iron complex region. The best
fit model is the same as that in fig.1 to show in the residuals the clear presence of the
iron line and absorption edge.
Figure 6. The model needed to fit the BeppoSAX spectrum of NGC 4151 (see text)
In figure 4 we show the spectrum of the LECS (7 ksec of effective exposure time), MECS
(about 55 ksec) and PDS (about 35 ksec) fitted with a complex model of the broad continuum
components. The presence of an iron line and iron absorption edge is very clear in the
residuals of the MECS (figure 5). In figure 6 we show the best fit model spectrum required
to fit the data, composed of an intrinsic power law with an exponential cut-off around 70
keV; an absorbing medium with a column density ~10^23 cm^-2 which is likely producing the
observed iron fluorescence line and the iron absorption edge; this medium has a complex
structure, well described by a leaky absorber, that allows a fraction (~20%) of the
intrinsic power law continuum to be transmitted without strong absorption. However, to be
consistent with the spectrum (and lack of variability, see Perola et al. 1986) in soft
X-rays, this component needs to be absorbed by a further, uniform absorbing screen with
N_H ~ 10^22 cm^-2. Finally, a soft component, possibly of thermal origin (kT ~ 0.4 keV),
external to the uniform absorber, is present below 1 keV.
2.2 Monitoring a large region of the X-ray sky: transients and gamma-ray bursts
One of the primary scientific goals of BeppoSAX is the observation of transient phenomena
in the sky. Two set of instruments are devoted to this purpose: the two WFC and the GRBM.
Figure 7. The WFC observation of the Galactic center region.
In figure 7 we show a 40 degree by 40 degree image centered on the Galactic center as
observed by one of the WFC. The field shows 27 sources distributed along the galactic
plane. To our knowledge this is the largest field ever imaged in X-rays in a single
An exciting example of the capability of BeppoSAX to observe transient phenomena is the
simultaenous observation of the gamma-ray burst GB960720 by the WFC and the GRBM (Piro et
al. 1996a http://www.sdc.asi.it/first/iaucirc.html ). The light curve in the GRBM is shown
in figure 7. The WFC image allows a localization of the event within a few arcmin. This
observation has triggered a series of follow-up observations in different energy bands
(e.g. Frail et al. IAUC 6472; Murakami et al. IAUC6481). We have carried out a deep
observation of the field with the NFI, that has led to the discovery of a previously
unknown X-ray source in the WFC error box (Piro et al. 1996b
http://www.sdc.asi.it/first/grb.html ). It is not yet clear whether this source is
actually related to GB960720 (see also Greiner et al. IAUC 6487). Along with the imaging
information, the wide band energy range covered simultaneously by the WFC and the GRBM
provides important information on the evolution of the burst at different energies.
In figure 8 we show some examples of gamma-ray burst light curves, in the different energy
ranges of the two instruments.
Figure 8. A sample of light curves of gamma-ray bursts observed by the GRBM
Boella G. et al. 1996a, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Boella G. et al. 1996b, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Citterio O. et al. 1985, SPIE Proc. 597, 102
Conti G. et al. 1994, SPIE Proc. 2279, 101
Frontera et al. 1996, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Jager R. et al. 1996, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Manzo G. et al. 1996, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Mihara 1995 PhD Thesis, Riken IPCR CR-76.
Parmar A. et al., 1996, A&A Suppl. Ser., in press.
Perola G.C. et al. 1986, ApJ 306, 508
Piro L., Scarsi L. & Butler R.C., 1995, SPIE Proc. 2517, 169
Piro L. et al. 1996a, IAU circ. 6467
Piro L. et al. 1996b, IAU circ. 6480
Warwick R.S., Done C. & Smith D.A. 1995, MNRAS 275, 100
Zdziarski, A. A., Johnson, W. N. & Magdziarz P. 1996, MNRAS 283, 193
CHIANTI Atomic Database Package
by Ken Dere
We would like to announce the release of the first version of the CHIANTI atomic database
package. CHIANTI includes a comprehensive set of the most up-to-date atomic data available
for calculating astrophysical emission line spectra at wavelengths greater than 50
Angstroms as a function of both density and temperature. IDL procedures to calculate
synthetic spectra, density and temperature sensitive line ratios, etc are also included. A
paper describing the CHIANTI atomic database package has recently been submitted to
Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements and is authored by K. P. Dere, E. Landi, H. E.
Mason, B. C. Monsignori Fossi and P. R. Young. CHIANTI will continue to be developed in
the future and, in particular, is being extended to cover the X-ray region of the
CHIANTI is available by anonymous ftp to louis14.nrl.navy.mil in the pub/chianti directory
and through our WWW page http://wwwsolar.nrl.navy.mil/chianti.html. The README file should
provide the necessary information for downloading the files and getting started. If you
have any questions or would like to be put on a mailing list to be informed of the status
of the CHIANTI database, please email Ken Dere at firstname.lastname@example.org.
SEUS Web Page
by Fiona Harrison
The Structure and Evolution of the Universe Subcommittee (SEUS) of the SScAC would like to
point out the existence of a web page http://www.srl.caltech.edu/seus which is intended to
provide the community information about the meetings of this subcommittee, the roadmap
process, and information about current and proposed missions relevent to the SEU science
theme. We are maintaining a public bulletin board at this site intended for community
input on missions, science, technology and other items of interest. This bulletin board
will be reviewed regularly by SEUS members and by the SEUS chairman, Roger Blandford.
ACE Science Workshop
by Richard Mewaldt
ACE Science Workshop
January 7, 8, & 9, 1997
A scientific workshop for NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission will be held
on January 7, 8, and 9, 1997 on the campus of the California Institute of Technology. ACE
includes nine instruments that will measure the elemental, isotopic, and ionic charge
state composition of nuclei with Z=1 to 28 from solar wind energies (~1 keV/nuc) to
galactic cosmic ray energies (~500 MeV/nuc). It will be launched in August 1997 into orbit
about the inner Lagrangian (L1) point, where it will provide unprecedented measurements of
energetic nuclei of solar, interplanetary, and galactic origin, and also provide real-time
solar wind and other interplanetary data.
The January workshop will include fifteen invited speakers that will discuss the broad
range of scientific objectives that ACE can address. The scientific community is invited
to present ideas for the use of ACE data in a poster session, and by participation in
several splinter sessions that will focus on topics involving solar wind origin and
acceleration, the composition of the solar corona, interstellar material observable as
pick-up ions and anomalous cosmic rays, solar/interplanetary particle acceleration, and
the origin, acceleration, and transport of galactic cosmic rays. A special issue of Space
Science Reviews is also planned.
To get on the mailing list for additional workshop announcements send your name and
address by e-mail to: email@example.com or fax it to Debby Kubly at 818-449-8676.
Questions about the scientific program can be addressed to any of the following members of
the organizing committee:
Jon Ormes (301-286-8801; firstname.lastname@example.org),
Bill Feldman (505-667-7372; email@example.com),
George Gloeckler (301-953-5412; firstname.lastname@example.org),
Glenn Mason (301-405-6203; email@example.com),
Richard Mewaldt (818-395-6612; firstname.lastname@example.org),
Eberhard Moebius (603-862-3097; email@example.com).
Aspen Workshop on Gamma Ray Bursts
by D. Lamb
A second workshop on gamma-ray bursts will be held at the Aspen Center for Physics from 18
August - 6 September 1997. The co-organizers are Don Lamb (University of Chicago), Michael
Briggs (Marshall Space Flight Center), and Igor Mitrofanov (Institute of Space Research,
A number of morning seminars will be given to provide an overview and a framework for
discussing important issues, but most of the action will take place in small working
groups and in discussions between individual participants during other mornings and in the
The workshop will focus on the predictions of galactic corona and cosmological models, and
the evidence for and against these models. Specific issues that are likely be discussed at
the workshop include whether or not galactic corona models can accomodate the degree of
isotropy of bursts on the sky that is observed; whether or not cosmological tests are
overwhelmed by source evolution; whether or not various cosmological tests are consistent
with each other; whether or not there is a lack of bright galaxy optical counterparts;
whether or not burst spectra show lines, and if so, whether or not the lines are
consistent with what is expected if they are due to cyclotron resonant scattering in
strong magnetic fields; whether or not burst sources repeat; and what are the best next
steps to take to try to get to the bottom of this mysterious phenomenon.
Persons interested in participating in the workshop should apply through the regular
admissions process of the Aspen Center for Physics. This can be done electronically
through the Aspen Center for Physics Web page at http://andy.bu.edu/aspen or by sending a
completed application form (which can be obtained from the Center Web page) to Aspen
Center for Physics, 700 West Gillespie Street, Aspen, CO 81611, U.S.A.
Obituaries - HETE, MARS 96, and CUBIC
HETE - by J.-L. Atteia, T. Cline, E. Fenimore, K. Hurley, M. Matsuoka, D. Lamb, G. Ricker,
and S. Woosley
Tragically, the High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE) was lost during launch on November
4th when the third stage of the Pegasus rocket failed to separate from the payload
containing HETE (and SAC-B). Although the third stage of the rocket and the attached
payload did achieve orbit, HETE was "trapped" inside the can supporting SAC-B.
Unable to see, communicate, or recharge its batteries, HETE died one day later. Before
HETE died, the NOAA VHF tracking station at Wallops Island and a radio antenna at Los
Alamos National Laboratory managed to detect radio transmissions from HETE, verifying
that, insofar as we can tell, HETE was operating as planned.
It is perhaps worthwhile to review briefly the history and some of the unique aspects of
the HETE mission. HETE began as an idea in workshops at San Diego and at Santa Cruz in the
early 1980's. The name and the three instruments were laid out in the Santa Cruz
conference proceedings in 1983. At first the HETE concept was broad, with a mass and size
requiring a dedicated Delta-class launcher, and expensive, with costs in excess of $100M.
In 1986, the HETE concept was sharply re-focused on determining accurate gamma-ray burst
positions and carrying out multi-wavelength observations from a single small satellite.
Japanese and French collaborators were invited to join the effort, enhancing both the
scientific capability and the cost effectiveness of the mission. The HETE Team eventually
grew to encompass several countries and dozens of people. It also came to include
ground-based observers around the world.
HETE was a ground-breaking mission in many ways. First, the idea of multi-wavelength
observations across 6 orders of magnitude in energy (UV, X-ray, gamma-ray) was a novel way
to study gamma-ray bursts. Seeing correlated behavior in these three energy bands would
highly constrain possible models. HETE also had improved sensitivity in the mid-x-ray band
(~2-20 keV) compared to BATSE and could have provided new information about the x-ray
behavior of gamma-ray bursts, as well as interesting secondary science studies of x-ray
bursts and flare stars. Perhaps the most exciting HETE innovation was the idea of getting
word of a gamma-ray burst to these observers in seconds, so that they could turn their
telescopes on the burst while it was still happening. HETE would have done that, and in
doing so, might have solved the problem of what gamma-ray bursts are.
Programmatically, HETE was the prototype of the "faster, cheaper" mission, an
approach now endorsed by NASA. HETE pioneered an entirely new mission management
philosophy, in which a fixed price was set for the mission, and the scientists involved
were given the freedom and the responsibility of making trade-off or de-scoping decisions,
if needed in order to meet the fixed price. HETE pioneered the operation of a NASA
astrophysics satellite through direct up/down links from primary and secondary ground
stations established by the scientists involved, rather than through a NASA center. As a
result, HETE came to involve a network of dozens of observatories scattered worldwide that
were dedicated to rapidly responding to HETE detections.
Although the original HETE hardware is now dead, the ideas underlying the mission and the
unique synergy of individuals, laboratories, and countries that really constitute HETE are
very much alive. Most importantly, the scientific motivation for HETE remains. We have
thus begun to consider and to discuss with NASA the possibility of resurrecting the HETE
mission. Our Japanese and French colleagues enthusiastically support this possibility. The
existence of complete blueprints for the spacecraft and flight spares for parts of the
instruments, as well as the experience gained by building HETE, would allow us to refly
HETE for a small fraction of what has already been spent. For a total of approximately
$6.5 M, a new HETE could be ready to fly in 28 months.
The HETE Team will be happy to provide additional supporting information. Material on the
technical and scientific status of HETE, photos of the HETE hardware, details of the
Pegasus XL launch failure, and a description of the worldwide HETE Burst Alert Network is
also available on the HETE Web page located at
MARS 96 by K. Hurley
According to a Russian saying, "a tragedy never comes alone". This proved to be
true on November 16 when, after a nominal launch into low Earth orbit, the fourth stage of
the Proton rocket carrying the Russian Mars 96 mission failed to place it into an
interplanetary orbit to Mars. The spacecraft re-entered and burned up over the South
Pacific. Onboard were three gamma-ray burst detectors which would have completed the Third
Interplanetary Network. One was a scintillator array provided by the CESR in Toulouse,
France, which was similar to instruments placed aboard the ill-fated Phobos 1 and 2
missions. The second was the Precision Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, a Los Alamos/IKI
collaboration. PGS comprised a germanium detector for studies of the Martian surface, and
was equipped with a trigger system and a fast memory for studying gamma-ray bursts. The
third was the Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, an experiment developed by UC Berkeley Space
Sciences Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
and Goddard Space Flight Center, in collaboration with IKI. GRBM (also known as
"Burstman") was a prototype for a small, low cost instrument which could be
placed on mass-constrained planetary missions.
CUBIC by David Burrows
The Pegasus that launched HETE contained a double payload. The second satellite was the
Argentinian/US SAC-B, and among other instruments, it carried CUBIC (Cosmic Unresolved
Background Instrument Using CCD's), to measure the spectrum of the soft X-ray diffuse
background over the energy range 0.2 - 10 keV over a large part of the sky. The CUBIC home
page http://www.astro.psu.edu/xray/cubic/ contains more information on this experiment.
by K. Hurley
A very complete list of astronomical meetings exists on the Hawaii web site
http://cadcwww.dao.nrc.ca/meetings/meetings.html Here is my partial list of meetings that
I have received notices for.
189th AAS, Toronto, Canada, January 12-16, 1997. Of special interest to HEAD members are
the Rossi Prize Lecture, the HEAD business meeting, and the special HEAD sessions, all on
Tuesday, January 14.
Science with BeppoSAX (First Results from the Science Verification Phase), andBeppoSAX
Scientific Software and Calibration (Demonstration sessions on software and calibration of
January 21-22, 1997, Rome, Italy.
All-Sky X-Ray Observations in the Next Decade - A Workshop for ASM and GRB Missions in the
X-ray Band, March 3-5, 1997, Wako, Japan
Fourth Compton Symposium, Williamsburg VA, April 28-30, 1997.
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org or
X-ray Surveys Workshop, Potsdam, Germany, June 18-20, 1997
25th International Cosmic Ray Conference, Durban, South Africa, July 28 - August 8, 1997.
Aspen Center for Physics 1997
Numerous informal workshops, including Formation and Evolution of Extrasolar Planets and
Brown Dwarfs (May 26- June 6), Microlensing, Dark Matter, and Galactic Structure (May 26 -
June 13), Nonlinear Dynamics in Astrophysics and Geophysics (June 2 - June 13), and
Gamma-Ray Bursters (August 18 - September 5),
http://andy.bu.edu/aspen/ , or email@example.com, or phone (970) 925 2585
23rd General Assembly of the IAU, Kyoto, Japan, August 18-30, 1997.
A Joint Discussion on High Energy Transients will be part of the program, as well as a
symposium on hot astrophysical plasmas, five other symposia, and about 15 joint
discussions, on a wide range of astronomical topics. Anyone interested in presenting a
paper or poster should contact Virginia Trimble, chair of the SOC
(firstname.lastname@example.org). IAU membership forms were distributed in the August AAS
newsletter, and there is an opportunity to apply for travel funds from a block NSF/AAS
grant. The IAU itself provides some travel support for young astronomers and those from
Fourth Huntsville Symposium on Gamma-Ray Bursts
15-19 September 1997 - Huntsville, AL
Contact: C. Meegan (email@example.com)
The Active X-ray Sky, Emphasing Results from BeppoSAX and RXTE,
October 22-24, 1997, Rome, Italy
HEAD 1997 meeting, November 4-7, 1997, Stanley Hotel, Estes Park, CO
Contact: firstname.lastname@example.org, or http://www.eurekasci.com
HEADNEWS, the electronic newsletter of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the
American Astronomical Society, is issued by the Secretary-Treasurer, at the University of
California Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450. The HEAD Executive
Committee Members are:
Neil Gehrels, Chair (email@example.com)
Gordon Garmire, Vice-Chair (firstname.lastname@example.org)
David Burrows (email@example.com)
Lynn Cominsky (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chuck Dermer (email@example.com)
Martin Elvis, Member and Past Chair (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Kevin Hurley, Secretary-Treasurer (email@example.com)
Chryssa Kouveliotou (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Chip Meegan (email@example.com)
Paula Szkody (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Please send newsletter correspondence to email@example.com