Newsletter No. 79, November 2001
  1. Notes from the Editor - Matthew Baring
  2. Arthur Davidsen (1944 - 2001) - Lynn Cominsky
  3. Fred Hoyle (1915 - 2001) - Donald Clayton
  4. HEAD in the News - Lynn Cominsky and Megan Watzke
  5. News from NASA Headquarters - Paul Hertz, Lou Kaluzienski and Don Kniffen
  6. NASA SEU Theme Solicits Community Input - Paul Hertz
  7. GLAST Mission News - Lynn Cominsky
  8. Swift Mission News - Lynn Cominsky
  9. RXTE News - Tod Strohmayer, et al.
  10. INTEGRAL Science Data Centre - Thierry Courvoisier
  11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations Report - Roger Brissenden
  12. Meeting Announcements:




from the Editor - Matthew Baring, HEAD Secretary-Treasurer, headsec@aas.org, 713-348-2983

HEAD only delivers the table-of-contents for HEADNEWS into your mailbox. The newsletter itself can be found online at http://www.aas.org/head/headnews/headnews.nov01.html.

The next HEAD Division meeting is a joint meeting with the APS Division of Astrophysics (DAP) April 20-23, 2002, in Albuquerque, NM. The meeting will include invited and contributed talks, poster sessions, and evening workshops like recent HEAD meetings, as well as the opportunity to attend plenary and other sessions of the Spring APS Meeting. The first announcement was emailed to HEAD members in September 2001, with the second announcement to be mailed in December 2001. HEAD members should note that abstracts are due January 11, 2002. The APS will be taking care of registration, accommodation and abstract submission. Please check the APS April Meeting website 2002 April HEAD Meeting Information for further details.

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2. Arthur Davidsen (1944 - 2001)

An Obituary Prepared for the HEAD Newsletter
Compiled by Lynn Cominsky (Sonoma State University) from information from the New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2001/07/22/obituaries/22DAVI.html and other sources.

Arthur F. Davidsen, professor of physics and astronomy at the Johns Hopkins University, and HEAD Executive Committee member (1998-1999) died July 19, 2001 at age 57, from complications of a lung disorder. Davidsen's research interests were primarily in the fields of high-energy astrophysics and ultraviolet space astronomy. From 1985 to 1988, he served as the founding director of the Center for Astrophysical Sciences in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins. At the time of his death, Davidsen was chairman of the advisory council for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

Perhaps his crowning achievement was his role as principal investigator for the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), which flew as part of both the Astro-1 and Astro-2 Observatory missions on the Space Shuttle. Davidsen designed HUT to search for ionized helium in the intergalactic medium. His measurement of its opacity towards a high redshift quasar during the Astro-2 mission has been a fundamental reference point for recent simulations of the development of the inhomogeneous structure of the IGM. In recognition of the importance of this measurement, HUT is now enshrined at the National Air and Space Museum, part of the new permanent exhibit "Explore the Universe." He was also a member of the team that designed and developed the Faint Object Spectrograph for the Hubble Space Telescope.

Professor Davidsen held an A.B. from Princeton University and the M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, where he "was in the top group of students...even as a graduate student Art had a keen grasp of the big picture in Astronomy. He was offered an Assistant Professorship at JHU immediately upon getting his PhD. And he converted their rather sleepy sounding rocket program into a dynamite program that eventually led to HUT and from there on to cosmology" recalls UCB Professor Emeritus C. Stuart Bowyer. Davidsen won many prizes for his research: among them were several achievement awards from NASA and the 1979 AAS Warner Prize. The latter prize was awarded for a rocket experiment in which he measured the first ultraviolet spectrum of a quasar, showing that little cool hydrogen lurked unseen in intergalactic space. Davidsen's academic honors included election as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Physical Society. Posthumously (9/28/01), Davidsen was awarded the NASA Public Service Medal.

A true pioneer in the field of space-based ultraviolet astronomy, Davidsen got his first exposure to rocket science when, prior to attending graduate school during the Vietnam War, he worked with Dr. Herbert Friedman at the Naval Research Laboratory.

At JHU, Davidsen's personal research stressed the characteristics of the intergalactic medium. Perhaps Davidsen's most unusual accomplishment was his successful campaign together with AURA to site STScI at JHU, permanently changing the center of gravity of space science by "turning Hopkins into an astrophysics powerhouse" according to JHU Physics and Astronomy chair Paul Feldman.

Not just a rocket scientist, Davidsen was also fondly remembered for singing doo-wop while accompanying himself on the guitar, and being a jazz fan, fly fisherman and Harley enthusiast. He is survived by his wife, two sons, two stepsons, and a sister, and many close colleagues who miss him dearly.

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3. Fred Hoyle (1915 - 2001)

Donald Clayton (Obituary for BAAS, December 2001)

Sir Fred Hoyle, who died still working at age 86, applied field theory to cosmology and began new astronomical disciplines. A national hero, he was knighted by the Queen in 1972 for a large number of distinguished contributions to astronomy and to the UK: he worked on radar during WWII, created Cambridge's Institute of Astronomy, and chaired the Science Research Council's astronomy committee for creation of the Anglo-Australian Telescope. By creating and challenging our human view of the universe for more than half the century, Hoyle was a creative genius. His name became well known to the public following his BBC broadcasts "The Nature of the Universe (1950)." His 1955 book "Frontiers of Astronomy" inspired a generation of astronomers and public alike.

Nucleosynthesis in Stars: After WWII it was already popular to envision the beginnings of the universe as an expansion from a very dense state. But attempts to create the elements in that setting, which was its initial goal, were unsuccessful; so the picture languished. Hoyle changed the nucleosynthesis paradigm in 1946 by showing that the interiors of evolved massive stars should eventually reach very high temperature and density, and that in that setting the natural dominance of iron in the iron abundance peak could be understood as a consequence of statistical equilibrium provided that the neutron/proton ratio was chosen. Hoyle and collaborators called this "the e process", with "e" being for equilibrium. If explosive disruption of the star followed, the interstellar gas would be enriched in iron. This paper shifted attention to nucleosynthesis in the stars and created the field of galactic chemical evolution. In 1954 Hoyle published an ApJ paper detailing not only the e process but the synthesis of all elements between carbon and nickel as a series of successive thermonuclear epochs in which the ashes of one stage became the fuel of the next. This, Hoyle's most accepted theoretical innovation, would dominate the next three decades of theoretical astrophysics. An irony is that because the neutron/proton ratio does not reach the value that Hoyle initially suggested, it is not properties of iron nuclei that account for its high abundance, but rather those of radioactive nickel, which was demonstrated in the late 1960s by others to be the radioactive parent of iron, of the radioactive power for supernova light, and the source of a realistic test of the theory through detection of the gamma-ray lines.

Steady State Cosmology: Hoyle is perhaps more widely known as creator during 1947-48 of the steady-state theory of the universe. Bondi and Gold also published a discussion of this idea in 1948 from a more philosophical point of view. Hoyle's approach, however, went straight to the need for a field theory of gravitation that included a field for creating matter. Hoyle invented and introduced a scalar field for that purpose. A large number of publications during the next 15 years, many with Jayant Narlikar, explored the mathematical implications of this (and other) fields in cosmology. Their work and book on time-symmetric quantum electrodynamics was a herculean effort of theoretical physics which they saw as supporting the steady-state theory. They also introduced a new theory of gravity itself. These established Hoyle as founder and champion of the concept of creation in the universe, and field equations that achieve this will forever be associated with his name. In all of these the influence of Dirac and of Hoyle's training in mathematical field theory shows through. Hoyle's field equation led to the exponentially expanding but spatially flat metric that he discovered, and that reappeared in similar form in the inflation epoch of the Big Bang theory. Philosophical beauty was not his only guide, however. The conviction from work by Ambartsumian and others in the 1960s that violent cosmic objects represented ejection of matter rather than infall of matter strongly motivated Hoyle.

The steady-state theory makes strong predictions. Hoyle's reaction to poorly documented attacks on the steady state theory was to demolish the "disproofs". Almost against his will this reaction placed Hoyle in the position of seeming a sore loser in a scientific debate, a perception that persisted until his death. But in 1964 Hoyle pioneered calculations of nucleosynthesis in a big-bang cosmology with Tayler by arguing that a hot big bang was the source of a uniform cosmic density of helium; and in 1967, with Wagoner and Fowler, Hoyle demonstrated a source for both isotopes of H and both isotopes of He as well as of 7Li in the Big Bang. The latter calculation set the standard for big-bang nucleosynthesis. Nonetheless, Hoyle's common image is of his giving the Big Bang its name in sarcasm. But following accurate spectral measurements of the microwave background of the universe, Hoyle acknowledged its possible knockout blow to the simple steady state model. Still he showed with Wickramasinghe the capacity of a modified steady-state picture for thermalizing starlight with carbon whiskers formed in stellar outflows. This effort contributed to his monograph ("A Different Approach to Cosmology", with G. Burbidge and J. Narlikar, (2000: Cambridge University Press)) presenting an alternative to the Big Bang based on an oscillating but otherwise steady state. Cosmology was led toward its modern empirical state by the galvanizing role of the steady-state theory in arguments about of evolutionary cosmology.

Red Giants and Supernovae: Hoyle's great contributions to stellar evolution involved both physical models of stars becoming red giants and of their exploding as supernovae. The former occurred in 1953 during his visit to Princeton University. The issue was physical interpretation of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of globular cluster stars, which Hoyle had already addressed with Lyttleton in 1949. Hoyle and Schwarzschild constructed numerical models of the evolution of stars from the main sequence that not only explained the physical nature and cause of red giant stars but also introduced many physical ideas that now seem as if they must always have been known. This was done not with a Pentium processor, mind you, but by hand integration of the dimensionless q, t, p variables that Schwarzschild later used in his book on stellar evolution. Innovations included an isothermal helium core, a thin hydrogen burning shell (on the CN cycle), and a deepening surface convection zone owing to the failure of the zero boundary conditions at the surface. Practitioners of stellar evolution reread this ApJ paper and marvel at the concepts that were argued into existence but that are now taken to be evident. When Hoyle visited Kellogg Lab at Caltech for the first time in 1953, he argued that the triple-alpha rate would be inadequate for both red giants and nucleosynthesis unless 12C were to have an excited state with zero spin and positive parity at 7.7 MeV excitation. This pronouncement was incredible, because 12C has very few excited states; but it was soon shown true. Hoyle's prediction of the energy of this state was the most accurate that had ever been achieved, and it had relied on astrophysics rather than nuclear physics. Hoyle had anticipated the anthropic principle by arguing that because we are here, this 12C excited state must exist.

In 1960 and 1964 Hoyle published with Fowler physical interpretations of spectroscopically defined supernovae of Types I and II. They argued that Type I were degenerate dwarfs that explode nuclear fuel and that Type II were implosion-explosion sequences within massive stars. These are today our paradigms, although they did not see the role of neutrino transport in the Type II rebound, arguing instead that centrifugal barriers to further collapse would allow thermonuclear power to eject matter. The physical pictures that Hoyle constructed of supernovae and of red giants remain mental images carried by all astronomers.

Stardust and Panspermia: Hoyle's foray into interstellar biology began innocently enough. With Cambridge student Wickramasinghe he published in the 1960s papers on the condensation of refractory dust in both winds from carbon stars and within the interiors of supernovae as they expanded and cooled. Within ten years a new astronomy could be envisioned after others argued that such dust would be isotopically anomalous and could perhaps be found within the meteorites. The first such stardust in meteorites was isolated in 1987 and has enormously enriched astronomical knowledge. Hoyle's adventure into interstellar biology grew from an indication that the absorption spectra of bacteria resembled extinction plus his conviction that some driving principle would be needed to process interstellar matter into such forms with high efficiency. For this they boldly suggested reproductive chemistry. Hoyle's attitude was of this as a novel scientific argument to be addressed by the usual scientific methods. After it was instead attacked by biologists' public comments rather than published scientific arguments, Hoyle's back stiffened. His subsequent foray into publishing books directly to the public rather than to scientists was unfortunate. Hoyle had written for the public brilliantly in his 1957 novel "The Black Cloud", in which imagined (then) cold molecular clouds developed a nervous system and consciousness that controlled their environements in an astrophysical "gaia". The physical notion stayed with him. Writing to the public Hoyle and Wickramasinghe argued in "Lifecloud (1958)", "Diseases from Space" (1979) and "Space Travelers:The Origins of Life" (1980) that comets carried the basic chemicals of DNA replication, and even of influenza epidemics. The scorn of the biochemical world was total. But it must be added that today the role of comets in delivering biochemically sensitive matter is an open science topic, as is the question whether life emerged first on Earth or on another planetary body (Mars, say).

Hoyle childhood and manhood: "The child is father of the man" wrote Wordsworth, and Hoyle has himself described the truth of that sentiment in his own case. In his autobiography "Home is where the wind blows" Hoyle focused much attention on his early war with education in Gilstead, a village near Bingley in Yorkshire where Hoyle had been born in 1915. His family was far from the privileged classes that gave England so many science superstars. His mother was a big influence. She had worked in the Bingley textile mill but later studied music at the Royal Academy and became a professional singer before she married. Through age nine Hoyle was at war with the educational system. Rebellious truant and foe of ignorant authority, Hoyle quit school after being slapped by a teacher. His mother strongly supported him in the confrontation with local education authorities. After transferring schools, Hoyle eventually won a scholarship to Bingley Grammar School, to and from which he walked four miles daily. From there he managed to gather financial support to enter Cambridge University's Pembroke College in 1933. There he won half share of the Mayhew prize in the mathematical tripos. Later he became a research student of Dirac because, Hoyle explains, Dirac could not resist the circular logic of a supervisor who did not want a research student who didn't want a supervisor!

During the 1960s-70s Hoyle organized climbing trips of "the Munros" of Scotland (peaks of more than 3000 ft) for those that accepted his passion for talking day and night of the universe and its problems. (See "With Fred on Slioch" from my memoir THE DARK NIGHT SKY). Yielding to a separate summer madness, Hoyle would terminate work and invite colleagues to his house to watch the cricket Test Matches while he explained its intracacies to Americans. He once exclaimed, "Is there not somewhere a cricket team that can beat the Australians!"

Three of Fred Hoyle's papers (above) were selected for the AAS Centennial Volume featuring the most influential research of the twentieth century published in AJ and ApJ. I would argue that his paper on big-bang nucleosynthesis might also have been included. Most of his publications were in MNRAS, however, including the field theoretic steady state model. These earned the international Crafoord and Balzan Prizes, and many felt that Hoyle might have shared Fowler's Nobel prize but for Hoyle's embarrassed status over exobiology. Many relevant photographs are available on a web site for the history of nuclear astrophysics (http://photon.phys.clemson.edu/wwwpages/PhotoArchive).

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4. HEAD in the News (May 2001 - November 2001) - Lynn Cominsky, HEAD Press Officer, and Megan Watzke, Chandra Press Officer

HEAD news coverage was very good during the past six months. We had coverage in the New York Times, the Washington Post, USA Today, Science News and many spots on the internet, television and radio. Here are some of the highlights.

News from the AAS Meeting in Pasadena (June 2001)

There were two press conferences at the Pasadena meeting that featured HEAD members. The first, on Tuesday June 5, featured new results on black holes from several different groups. Andrew Ptak and Ed Colbert, who were the first to report the existence of medium-sized black holes (at the Charleston HEAD meeting in April 1999), led a team from Carnegie-Mellon University and PSU that used Chandra data to survey 37 galaxies. Their team found that 25 percent of galaxies, which were chosen for their suspected central supermassive black holes and areas of star formation, had very luminous X-ray sources, consistent with being medium-sized black holes. These X-ray sources are now known as either Intermediate-luminosity X-ray Objects (IXO) or Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULX). Kimberly Weaver (GSFC), reported results from Chandra studies of NGC 253, which shows four IXOs within 3000 light years of the galaxy core. This starburst galaxy may be in the process of transforming itself into a quasar, she claimed. Finally, Pepi Fabbiano and Andreas Zezas (CfA) showed Chandra data from the Antenna galaxy and from M82 that also showed evidence for IXOs.

The second press conference, on Wednesday, June 6 featured Farhad Yusef-Zadeh (Northwestern), who showed a Chandra image of a cauldron of 60-million degree gas enveloping a cluster of young stars in the Arches cluster. This phenomenon, occurring within 100 light years of our Galactic Center, mimics the conditions found in starburst galaxies, and is the first time that colliding stellar winds from young stars have been found to generate a halo of X-rays. This press conference was highlighted in a lengthy article by John Wilford that appeared in the New York Times.

Another HEAD item of interest at the Pasadena meeting was the announcement by Drs. Padi Boyd and Alan Smale (GSFC) that they have discovered a unifying concept in the pattern of emissions in certain X-ray binaries. They analyzed the light curves of three X-ray binaries obtained over five years with the RXTE All Sky Monitor, and discovered that the number of days between low points of emission can, for each source, be described as a series of integer multiples of a fundamental underlying clock. See http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/xte/whatsnew/press_release2.html.

News at the Two Years of Science with Chandra Symposium (September 2001)

Much of the summer efforts of Chandra X-ray Center press office were centered on the Two Years of Science with Chandra symposium. Over 200 scientists attended this conference held September 5-7 at the Washington Plaza Hotel in Washington, DC. The biggest media story of the week came from Fred Baganoff (MIT) who announced the discovery of an X-ray flare in the direction of the Sgr A*. This result, which appeared on the cover of September 6th issue of Nature, was the focal point of a press conference on Wednesday, September 5th. In addition to the reporters in attendance, media from across the country were able to watch the proceedings via NASA TV. The press conference and release garnered widespread media attention, including broadcasts on CNN, CBS Radio and articles in the Washington Post, New York Times, LA Times (front page), and Baltimore Sun just to name a few. See Nature, 413, Issue 6851, p. 45 for the cover story by Baganoff et al., as well as commentary on p. 25 by Fulvio Melia (U Arizona), who also acted as the independent expert at the press briefing.

While the Sgr A* story was the headliner for the week, it was certainly not the only piece of news. On Thursday, September 6th, a press conference was held highlighting Chandra's recent progress made in the study of dark matter. Steve Allen (Institute of Astronomy, UK) demonstrated how Chandra is helping to nail down the precise amount of dark matter in the Universe. John Arabadjis (MIT) showed how his team's observations of the galaxy cluster EMS 1358 are narrowing the field of candidate dark matter particles. And Joel Bregman (U Michigan) did a wonderful job illuminating some of the mysteries of dark matter, as our independent expert at the press briefing. Again, this story was well received, including being the focus of a long story in the New York Times' Science Times section that following Tuesday.

Here are the other CXC releases at the meeting:

Bryan Gaensler (formerly of MIT and now at the CfA) et al. used Chandra to uncover a powerful jet of high-energy particles and bright arcs generated by the rapidly spinning neutron star B1509-58 pulsar, thus revealing the high-voltage environment of one of the most energetic and strongly magnetized pulsars known.

Astronomers examined the remnants of a stellar explosion with Chandra and discovered one of the youngest known pulsars. Steve Murray (CfA) studied 3C58, the remains of a supernova observed on Earth in 1181 AD, thus making it one of the few pulsars with a historical association.

Sumner Starrfield (ASU) and colleagues detected a giant X-ray outburst and an unusual cyclical pulsation in their observations of Nova Aquilae the first time either of these phenomena has been seen in X rays in such a system.

Also, several other press releases were issued from the news offices of the PI's home institutions. These were:

A Chandra image of KS 1731-260, obtained by Rudy Winjands (MIT), reveals that the neutron star is remarkably cool after 12 years of being bombarded with hot gas from a companion star. See ApJL, 560, L159.

Nick White and Lorella Angelini (GSFC) used Chandra to discover that a puzzling X-ray source in the globular star cluster M15 is really two neutron star binary systems, not one. The two binary systems appear so close together (2.7 arc sec) that they were indistinguishable with previous X-ray telescopes. Read about it in ApJL, 561, L101.

In a spectacular X-ray image, Leisa Townsley (PSU) et al. found that the most massive stars in the Rosette Nebula produce winds slam into each other, creating violent shocks that infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas.

Eric Feigelson (PSU) and his team used Chandra to survey the young stars in the Orion Nebula. They found a much higher rate of flares than expected a result that broad implications for the formation of our own Solar System. This story was covered by the New York Times, and had broad national wire distribution.

The Chandra X-ray Center Press Office thanks all of those who helped to make the 'Two Years' symposium such a great success.

Other Chandra News:

Halo of hot gas around Milky Way cousin: Using Chandra, a team led by Daniel Wang (UMass) found the first unambiguous evidence for a giant halo of hot gas around NGC 4631, a nearby, spiral galaxy much like our own Milky Way. This discovery may lead to a better understanding of our own Galaxy, as well the structure and evolution of galaxies in general. The paper appeared in ApJL, 555, L99

Diffuse hot gas confirmed in Milky Way: Ken Ebisawa (GSFC) et al. used Chandra observations in the 'zone of avoidance' to see through our galaxy to spot 36 active galaxies, but few point sources in our own galaxy. This indicates that the galactic ridge emission is actually diffuse gas, somehow trapped in the Milky Way, and is not made of many weak, previously unresolved sources. For more information, see Science, 293, 1030 for a commentary by Robert Irion, and the research article in volume 293, p. 1633.

Oxygen-rich supernova G292.0+1.8 reveals evidence for pulsar: John Hughes (Rutgers) et al. reported that Chandra observations of G292.0+1.8 show that the 1600-year-old supernova remnant contains oxygen, silicon, neon, magnesium, sulfur, and a pulsar. The widely believed connection between heavy element and pulsar formation following the explosion of a massive star, remained elusive, until the pulsar was discovered in the Chandra data. For more information, see ApJ, 559, L153. To see all the Chandra news releases, check out http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/.

News from XMM

XMM Newton has begun to send out increasing numbers of press releases. Here are two that caught the eye of your HEAD Press Officer.

Blandford-Znajek effect reported seen in MCG-6-30-15: Unprecedented details of the iron line profile in the galaxy MCG-6-30-15 have provided evidence for an excess of energy being extracted from the galaxy's central black hole. The excess energy is believed to be extracted from the spinning black hole, as it is braked by magnetic fields. Joern Wilms (Tuebingen) led the XMM-Newton team that performed the observations. ASCA studies of the iron line from this galaxy, demonstrating the existence of a spinning black hole, were previously recognized when Kirpal Nandra (GSFC) was awarded the AAS' Pierce prize in 2000 and by the award of the 2001 Rossi prize to Andrew Fabian (Cambridge) and Yasuo Tanaka (ISAS.) A partial listing of coverage of this story includes the New York, Times, NPR (interview with Chris Reynolds), the Dallas Morning News, AP, Science News and many newspapers in Europe.

Extreme activity from M81: Striking ultraviolet images of M81 were obtained by Alice Breeveld et al. using the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton. When combined with x-ray images, the data reveal regions of active stellar activity in stellar nurseries, as well a bright point source near the galaxy's nucleus which can be interpreted either as the accretion onto the galaxy's central black hole, or as an intense starburst. For more about XMM-Newton news, see http://sci.esa.int/xmm/.

Gamma-Ray Burst News

Two interesting theories about gamma-ray bursts made the news during the past six months.

Electromagnetic black holes? Remo Ruffini (Rome) et al. used data from Chandra, RXTE and Beppo-SAX to compare their theory to observations of gamma-ray bursts. They found that the timing and intensity of a gamma-ray burst and its afterglow could be explained by the formation of an electrically charged black hole. They also have shown that the expanding fireball from one burst could induce a nearby star to go supernova, helping to explain some anomalous iron observations and the association of some GRBs with supernovae. See ApJ, 555, L113 and L117.

Neutrinos from GRBS? Meszaros (PSU) and Waxman (Weizman Institute) have calculated that internal shocks in a collapsar will cause neutrinos to fly out at least 10 seconds ahead of the photons seen from GRBs. They also point out that some GRBs may only be detectable through their neutrino emissions, as the photons may be 'choked off.' Read the complete theory in PRL, 87, 171102.

Other News:

Hungry black hole speeds through the galaxy: Felix Mirabel et al. have used VLBA data in combination with 43-year-old Palomar Sky Survey data to show that the microquasar XTE J1118+840, discovered with RXTE, is orbiting the galaxy. This is the first time that a black hole's motion through space has been measured. XTE J1118+840 appears to have captured its binary companion before being ejected from the globular cluster in which it was born. It has also devoured a considerable quantity of its companion's mass, exposing its inner layers. For more, see Nature, volume 413, Issue 6852, p. 139.

HEAD members Fred and Don Lamb were profiled in an article in Science magazine by Mark Sincell. The article discussed their intertwined, stellar careers as high-energy astrophysical theorists. Read more about the dynamic duo in volume 293, p. 1040.

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5. News from NASA Headquarters - Paul Hertz, Lou Kaluzienski and Don Kniffen, NASA Headquarters.

Reorganization in the Office of Space Science: Introducing the Astronomy and Physics Division

On July 1, the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) was streamlined.  The headquarters program scientists and program executives are now working in science divisions rather than functional divisions.  All astrophysics programs, including high energy astrophysics, particle astrophysics, and fundamental and gravitational physics, are within the new Astronomy and Physics Division.  The Director of the A&P Division is Anne Kinney; prior to the reorganization, Anne was Science Program Director for the Astronomical Search for Origins science theme.  The two astrophysics science themes will be maintained within the A&P Division for the near future.  Following Alan Bunner's retirement, Paul Hertz is the lead scientist for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) science theme, which includes high energy astrophysics, particle astrophysics, and fundamental and gravitational physics.  Lou Kaluzienski and Don Kniffen continue to serve as discipline scientists for high energy astrophysics, as does Vernon Jones for particle astrophysics. 

The A&P Division welcomes two new discipline scientists.  Michael Salamon, formerly of the University of Utah, is the new discipline scientist for fundamental and gravitational physics.  Eric Smith, formerly of Goddard Space Flight Center, is the new discipline scientist for infrared, submillimeter, and radio astrophysics.  New organization charts and assignment lists may be found on the OSS web site at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/ (select "Administration" then "Divisions" then "Astronomy & Physics").  For the detail oriented, we are all now in Code SZ (the Astronomy and Physics Division) rather than Code SR (the defunct Research Program Management Division). 

There are several levels of community advisory groups advising the A&P Division.  The SEU Subcommittee (SEUS) and the Origins Subcommittee (OS) are subcommittees of the Space Science Advisory Committee.  SEUS and OS advise Anne Kinney on the SEU and Origins programs.  Bruce Margon (STScI) is the chair of the SEUS until February 2002; after that Rocky Kolb (Fermilab) will be the chair.  The A&P discipline scientists are advised by the Astrophysics Working Group (AWG); Dick Miller (Georgia State) is the current chair of the AWG.  Mission projects have science working groups during development and user groups during operations to advise both NASA headquarters and the project on science policy and mission operations.  Membership lists for the SEUS and OS may be found on the OSS web site (select "Committees"), a link to the AWG web site may be found on the A&P page, and mission advisory groups may be found on mission web sites (select "Missions" on on the OSS web site for links).

Strategic Planning

The Office of Space Science updates its strategic plan every three years, as required by the Government Performance and Reporting Act (GPRA).  During the next year, each of the science themes within OSS will be revising their Roadmaps.  The SEUS has appointed a Roadmap Team to consider what changes need to be made to the current SEU Roadmap in light of any progress that has been made in the past three years.  The Roadmap Team will use as input the recently completed McKee/Taylor Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the soon to be completed report of the Turner Committee on the Physics of the Universe, the recommendations of the Connections Group for NASA/NSF/DoE, and the NASA Cosmic Journeys initiative.  The Roadmap Team will have their first meeting in December and they expect to solicit community input for the Roadmap.  Sterl Phinney (Caltech) is chair of the SEU Roadmap team.  Soon there will be a SEU Roadmap team web site at http://universe.gsfc.nasa.gov.

Explorer Update

At Alan Bunner's retirement dinner in July 2001, NASA announced its decision to participate in the Japanese Astro-E2 mission, a reflight of the Astro-E mission which suffered a launch vehicle failure in February 2000.  A SMEX Mission of Opportunity proposal from Richard Kelley (GSFC) was selected to implement NASA's participation in Astro-E2.  Through Kelley's proposal, NASA will provide rebuilds of the XRS microcalorimeter and foil optic mirrors for Astro-E2, as well as fund a guest investigator program during the mission's 3 year prime mission.  Through a "Dear Colleague" letter, and in consultation with ISAS, NASA selected Richard Griffiths (CMU) to join the Astro-E2 science working group along with the continuing members of the Astro-E SWG (Pat Henry (Hawaii), Jack Hughes (Rutgers), Steve Kahn (Columbia), and John Nousek (PSU)).

Proposals for new MIDEX missions and Missions of Opportunity were due on October 30.  Forty-three proposals were received.  The proposals will be evaluated carefully by a science peer review and a technical, cost, and management (TMC) peer review.  Based on the evaluations, NASA expects to select approximately four MIDEX proposals, and possibly one or more Mission of Opportunity proposals, for concept studies in April/May 2002.  Following a five-month concept study, NASA expects to downselect two MIDEX missions, and possibly one or more Missions of Opportunity, for flight by January 2003.

Concept study reports for six SMEX missions and one Mission of Opportunity are due on December 18.  NASA will evaluate the seven missions thoroughly including site visits.  After the evaluations are complete, NASA expects to downselect two SMEX missions, and possibly one Mission of Opportunity, for flight no later than summer 2001.

The next Explorer Announcement of Opportunity, which will be for SMEX missions and Missions of Opportunity, will not be released before fall 2002.  The exact calendar of the next solicitation has not been determined at this time and depends (as always) on the future NASA budget.

Upcoming Research Opportunities

The Chandra cycle 4 general observer announcement is expected to be released on December 15, 2001.  In addition to observational proposals, archival analysis and theory proposals will be solicited. 

The 2002 Research Opportunities in Space Science (ROSS-02) will be released in January 2002.  It will contain several dozen program elements with due dates spaced throughout 2002.  Included in ROSS-02 will be high energy astrophysics, particle astrophysics, space astrophysics, fundamental and gravitational physics, astrophysics data, long term space astrophysics, and astrophysics theory programs.  Due dates have not been determined as of the date of this newsletter, but will generally be the same time of year as last year's solicitations.

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6. NASA SEU Theme Solicits Community Input - Paul Hertz, NASA Headquarters

NASA's Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Theme is updating its Roadmap in support of the NASA Office of Space Science (OSS) strategic planning process. The Roadmap and Strategic Plan will cover the years 2003-2028.

The SEU Roadmap Team solicits community input in the form of white papers describing mission concepts (principally for the years 2011+ after GLAST, Planck/Herschel, LISA, Con-X) or strategic activities (e.g. laboratory astrophysics, multi-mission technology development, theoretical efforts) which support the SEU theme. Mission concepts must be only those which could not be undertaken as part of NASA's Explorer Program. Mission-concept white papers must answer a series of prescribed questions, described in detail on the roadmap website (http://universe.gsfc.nasa.gov/roadmap.html). The preferred format for the white papers is pdf, though postscript is also acceptable. Page limit is 4 pages text, 2 pages figures. All documents submitted will be considered public, and posted on the roadmap website, unless the authors specifically call out private proprietary sections. The deadline for receipt is Jan 31, 2002. Further instructions about the scope of the SEU roadmap, requirements for the white papers, and submission instructions can be found at the roadmap website http://universe.gsfc.nasa.gov/roadmap.html The roadmap team will be actively soliciting white papers on some specific missions and activities. To avoid duplication of effort, you are urged to discuss your ideas with like-minded colleagues and/or members of the roadmap team before submitting a white paper.

The current members of the Roadmap team are: E. Sterl Phinney (chair), Paul Hertz (ex-officio, NASA/HQ), Sean Carroll, Sarah Church, Craig Hogan, Rocky Kolb (ex-officio), Daniel Lester, Steven Kahn, Michael Shull, Simon Swordy, and Nicholas White.

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7. GLAST Mission News - Lynn Cominsky, GLAST Press Officer

The next few months will see three major reviews of the GLAST project, in preparation for detailed design of the flight hardware. The joint NASA/DOE PDR/Baseline review for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) will be held in early January, 2002, followed shortly thereafter by the NASA Non-Advocate Review of the GLAST mission. The PDR for the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will be held in February. Accommodation studies with potential spacecraft vendors have been ongoing. The studies with Lockheed Martin and TRW have completed their final presentations and are drawing to a close. The third study, with Spectrum Astro, has just completed a mid-term presentation and will complete in January. The results of the studies will be incorporated into the final spacecraft statement of work, to be put out for bid with the final selection of the spacecraft vendor in April next year. The GLAST launch is scheduled to occur in March, 2006.

The major event for the GLAST Large Area Telescope team was the successful balloon flight of a prototype model of one GLAST "tower". Sixteen towers will comprise the flight instrument. The tower was tested on a 29 million-cubic-foot NASA scientific balloon that flew for three hours from Palestine, Texas, on August 4 at 127,000 feet, above 99.5 percent of the atmosphere. The balloon flight team included researchers from NASA GSFC, SLAC, Stanford University, UC Santa Cruz, NRL and Hiroshima University in Japan.

"The detector worked essentially flawlessly throughout the flight," said Dave Thompson, the Goddard scientist who led the project. "The flight gave us an extra level of confidence in the instrument design, and the data we collected will support the data analysis system now being constructed for GLAST." Four high school teachers took part in the balloon launch experience as well. Their experiences and many nice photos can be found at: http://scipp.ucsc.edu/outreach/BALLOON/index.html.

The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) team at MSFC has selected Southwest Research Institute to build the data processing unit, while the German GBM contingent has signed Jena Optronik to build the detectors and power supplies. The GBM team held a meeting in November, in Huntsville.

A GLAST LAT science team meeting, organized by LAT PI Peter Michelson and LAT Senior Science Advisory Committee Chair, Neil Gehrels, was held at Stanford University in August. Over 100 LAT collaboration members attended. At this meeting, working groups were formed to refine the LAT requirements for scientific progress in the following areas: diffuse radiation, galactic and unidentified sources, gamma-ray bursts and solar flares, extra-galactic sources, and a search for new physics. The next GLAST Science Working Group meeting is being held in December in Santa Cruz, organized by Project Scientist Jonathan Ormes. As part of this meeting, a special pulsar workshop is being organized by GLAST IDS Stephen Thorsett (UCSC). GLAST EPO Manager Phil Plait presented a teacher's workshop at the Astronomical Society of the Pacific meeting in St. Paul in July. EPO Lead Lynn Cominsky has given several public lectures about GLAST, including an appearance at Andy Fraknoi's popular Silicon Valley Lecture Series in November. A short promotional/educational video about GLAST is almost finished. An exhibit booth featuring a combination of GLAST and Swift materials was sent to the California Science Teachers' Association meeting in October, and will next be seen at the National Science Teachers' Association Southeast Regional meeting in Memphis, in December. After an arduous selection process, the first five GLAST Ambassadors have been chosen. They are: Tim Brennan, a teacher at Woodstock Union High School in Woodstock, Vermont; Teena Della, a teacher at Terry Fox Secondary School in Coquitlam, British Columbia (Canada); Michiel Ford, a teacher at Holton High School in Holton, Kansas; Jason Smith, a curriculum developer at the Challenger Center for Space Science Education in Alexandria, Virginia; and Daryl Taylor, a teacher at Williamstown High School in New Jersey.

Between them, these five motivated individuals have more than six decades of teaching experience and have received several national awards for teaching excellence. All are eminently qualified to teach high school age students about the wonders of the high-energy universe. The first task for the GLAST Ambassadors is to help develop, test and disseminate activities and a poster about active galaxies for distribution at next spring's national science and math teacher's meetings.

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8. Swift Mission News - Lynn Cominsky, Swift Press Officer

Swift's CDR was held in July, and all systems are go for flight fabrication. The ninth Swift science team meeting was held on July 23-24 at the University of Leicester, hosted by Alan Wells and his colleagues. The next science team meeting will be in early February, at NASA/GSFC. The Swift instruments will be completed by September 2002 to begin integration onto the spacecraft. Swift is on schedule for launch in September 2003 from Cape Canaveral, Florida.

A major milestone was reached in October, when Swift contractor eV Products (a division of II-VI Inc.) delivered 40,000 thumbtack-sized Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride gamma-ray detectors to GSFC. These detectors are the heart of Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) that will enable scientists to detect and accurately position GRBs. "This delivery is quite a milestone for both the Swift mission and the development of CZT detector technology," said Ann Parsons, BAT Detector Scientist. U.S. Rep. Melissa Hart (R, Penn.) and state officials attended the ceremony that marked the completion of the 40,000 detectors; the event was hosted by the detectors' manufacturers, eV Products Inc., and took place in Saxonburg, Pennsylvania.

Swift EPO Lead Laura Whitlock presented workshops for teachers at the California Science Teachers' Association meeting in October, and is scheduled to appear again in Memphis in December at the National Science Teachers' Southeast Regional meeting. The first meeting of the Swift Education Committee was held in August at Sonoma State University. The Invisible Universe teachers' guide, being developed by the Lawrence Hall of Science's GEMS group, is now in its second phase of field-testing, and should be completed later this year.

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9. Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer News - Tod Strohmayer, Alan Smale, Padi Boyd, Craig Markwardt, Jean Swank, Keith Jahoda, and Evan Smith, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) has now almost completed it's 6th observing cycle, and continues to perform well. Operations of all instruments are stable. PCA observations are carried out with selected numbers of detectors assigned based on the particular science requirements. HEXTE has had no microprocessor rebooting in over 2 years and its rocking modulators have now made over 6 million motions each. The ASM continues to provide an unparalleled long-term catalog of X-ray source variability. Exciting science results continue to be generated both from new observations as well as from the extensive RXTE public archive (now holding 700 Gbytes of public data from ~90,000 individual observations). If all goes well RXTE's 100,000th observation should be performed in cycle 7. Who will be the lucky PI? RXTE continues to support multi-wavelength efforts, as well as coordinated observing with the imaging and high spectral resolution capabilities of Chandra and XMM/Newton. Through AO6 RXTE has carried out about 1 Msec of coordinated observing with these observatories. A few short snapshots of recent RXTE science results follows.

One of RXTEs great strengths is its scheduling flexibility which makes frequent monitoring campaigns and coordinated observing possible. Some recent science results emphasize the return that comes from such capability. For example, Peter Woods (NSSTC/USRA) and his colleagues have reported new results from their RXTE pulse timing of two SGR pulsars; SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20. They find that the spin-down torques acting on these neutron stars can change by a factor of ~4, and that such changes can persist for months. These objects show torque noise power density spectra much steeper than is typical for accreting pulsars. Moreover, the changes in spin-down rate do not seem to correlate with burst activity. In a related study they found a power law afterglow following the giant flare of August 27, 1998 from SGR 1900+14. This they argue, combined with observed changes in the pulse profile which ocurred at the time of the flare, suggest a global reconfiguration of the neutron star magnetic field may have caused the giant flare. Details of their work can be found at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/0109361 and http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/0101045.

Fotis Gavriil and Victoria Kaspi (both McGill University) have also recently reported results of long-term RXTE monitoring campaigns. In this case of phase-coherent timing of several anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs); 4U 0142+61, 1E 2259.1+586, and RXS J170849.0-400910. They find a range of spin-down stability, and an indication that timing instability is correlated with spin-down rate. A similar correlation is known for radio pulsars as well as SGR pulsars, suggesting a possible connection between all these populations. They find no large changes in pulsed flux from any of these sources, with upper limits on variations of about 20-30%. For complete details see their paper at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/0107422.

Jean in't Zand (Utrecht University and SRON) and his colleagues have recently identified the optical and quiescent counterparts to the bright X-ray transient in NGC 6440. The identification was made possible by the RXTE/ASM detection of an outburst of the source and a subsequent Chandra follow-up observation. Comparison of the Chandra outburst image with a previous quiescent Chandra image led to a clear identification of the counterpart. This is the first time that an optical counterpart to a transient in a globular cluster has been securely identified. For all the details see their paper at http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/astro-ph/0111213.

Using the ASM long-term X-ray lightcurves of several X-ray binaries Padi Boyd (UMBC/GSFC) and Alan Smale (USRA/GSFC) have identified an interesting pattern in the excursion times between X-ray minima. For example, in Cyg X-2 the timespans can be characterized as a series of integer multiples of the 9.8 hour binary orbital period. In two other sources, LMC X-3 and Cyg X-3, similar relations also seem to hold, but the fundamental underlying clock does not appear to be the orbital period. They presented their findings at the 198th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society. For more details see the press release at http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/news-release/releases/2001/h01-111.htm.

Flavio D'Amico (UCSD) and collaborators have used the HEXTE instrument to detect hard X-ray tails out to 220 keV in the spectrum of the LMXB and Z source Sco X-1 (D'Amico et al. 2001, ApJ, 547, L147). They found no correlation between the presence of the hard tail and the position of the source in the color-color diagram, however, the two hardest photon indices were obtained when the source was on the flaring branch and the softest were observed on the horizontal branch, suggesting a possible correlation between the hardness of the spectrum and the mass accretion rate. They also found that the derived nonthermal luminosities are 10% of those derived for the brightest atoll sources.

Cycle 7 Review

Despite competition from newer, more visible missions, cataclysmic events that kept many away from their home institutions at a critical time, and a brand new electronic proposal submission process, the RXTE GOF received a net increase in proposals for Cycle 7 (closed 19 September 2001). Clearly community interest in RXTE data remains high. The cycle 7 proposal review was recently held on November 12-13, 2001. A total of 169 observing proposals requesting 70 Msec of observing time were received. The request for time was oversubscribed by nearly a factor of 3. These numbers are comparable to those for the last several cycles, indicating that researchers still value the unique observing capabilities of RXTE. A total of 124 proposals were approved. Decision letters should be sent to proposers within the next few weeks.

Software and Calibration

Reconstruction of the satellite attitude for the week of 6-13, September 2000 during which RXTE was not pointing properly has now been completed. Corrected attitude files can now be obtained from the RXTE archive. See the Latest News link at the RXTE website for further details. Additional technical information can also be found at http://lheawww.gsfc.nasa.gov/users/craigm/xteatterr/.

Considerable new work on the PCA background model is almost complete. For faint sources, a new set of modelling techniques has resulted in a reduction in the systematic error in the background by almost a factor of two compared to the currently published models. These new models to be provided by the XTE GOF will be drop-in replacements and will not require software changes.

Background model epochs are defined by the detector configurations. The current epoch 5 began when a micrometeorite created a small hole in the front window of one PCU (PCU0) and the propane in its front layer was lost. A new background model and filtering technique have now been developed for PCU0. Several other models for bright sources are in development which will bring the systematic error down to levels comparable to the faint source models, but will require software changes. With the new faint source models guest observers can expect a systematic error in the 2-10 keV band of about 0.033 ct/s/PCU (1 sigma; top layer), which corresponds to a flux of approximately 4 x 10^{-13} erg/s/cm^2, a small fraction of the fluctuations in the diffuse X-ray background.

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10. INTEGRAL Science Data Centre - Thierry Courvoisier, PI, INTEGRAL ISDC

The INTEGRAL mission is nearing launch that is now foreseen for October 2002. INTEGRAL will perform observations from few keV to about 10 MeV with an unprecedented spectral resolution, angular resolution and sensitivity with a suite of 3 high energy instruments and an optical monitor.

The INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC) will receive all the data from INTEGRAL, process them and prepare high level products before distributing the data and products to the observers and archiving them for future use. The ISDC foresees also to help observers with the further reduction of their data by providing them with analysis software and as far as possible with support.

In order to establish links with the community the ISDC is issuing a newsletter, the ISDC Astrophysics Newsletter, that provides information on its status and products and links to further sources of information on INTEGRAL and its instruments. The ISDC newsletter is edited by M. Tuerler of the ISDC and T. Montmerle of the CEA in Paris. The Newsletter can be accessed electronically on the site of the ISDC: http://isdc.unige.ch. The Newsletter appears every 3-4 months at present, an email is sent to subscribers whenever a new issue appears. Potential readers may subscribe on the newsletter page.

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11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations Report - Roger Brissenden, Manager, Chandra X-ray Center, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

Chandra passed two years of operation on 23 July 2001 and both the spacecraft and science instruments continue to operate exceptionally well.

Operational highlights during the last six months have included the uplink and checkout of two on-board computer flight software patches. The first allowed a return to autonomous operation of the Low Energy Transmission Grating. After August 2000, all LETG motions were made using real-time commanding to work around an anomalous limit switch reading. The patch allows the use of other indicators such as a potentiometer reading to measure the grating position and has once more allowed flexible scheduling of grating observations. The second patch increased the range over which the spacecraft can buildup momentum during its orbit. This will consequently reduce the number of firings of the momentum unloading system and bring the rate in line with the pre-launch projections.

Recently, Chandra passed through the 2001 Leonid meteor storm without incident. The predicted rates were sufficiently high this year to warrant orienting the spacecraft to the anti-radiant, however the plan was complicated by a 3 hour earth occultation that would have resulted in the loss of star lock by the on-board aspect camera. The mission schedule was modified to place the spacecraft in a 'gyro-hold' during the earth occultation, and real-time data indicated that the stars were re-acquired as expected following emergence from the earth's bright limb.

Following a quiet period of solar activity between April and August, Chandra's science loads were halted six times between September and November due to elevated levels. Particular care is taken to ensure that ACIS is minimally exposed to the low-energy particle flux capable of degrading the energy response of the CCDs. Trending of the Charge Transfer Inefficiency indicates that the measured degradation is within the expected budget.

The mission observing efficiency has continued to be close to the expected 70% each month, however fell to a low of 56% in September due mostly to the solar activity. The mission schedule was also interrupted twice for fast turn around Targets of Opportunity: the Dwarf Nova WZ Sge and the target FXRT011030.

The processing, archiving and distribution of data have continued smoothly with the average time from target observation to data distribution to user now about a week. The planned re-processing of data from launch to August 2000 with the updated calibration was completed and made available in the archive. Also, a new release of the Chandra analysis package (CIAO) was made in October. CIAO 2.2 contains a significant a number of enhancements and new features including support for extended and multiple source analysis, reading numerical models from files and improved documentation.

As the year concludes, so do the observations from Cycle 2. During November we have started the transition to Cycle 3 targets and are preparing for the release of the Cycle 4 NRA planned for December.

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12. Meeting Announcements

Matter and Energy in Clusters of Galaxies (23-26 April, 2002 @ Taiwan)
An International Conference on 'Matter and Energy in Clusters of Galaxies' will be held April 23-26, 2002 in Taiwan. The topics to be covered will include: X-ray Observations, Radio Observations, Hard X-ray and EUV Excesses in Clusters, Optical and Infrared Results, Magnetic Fields in Clusters, Gamma Rays in Clusters, Cosmic Rays and Acceleration Mechanisms, Lensing Results, and Cluster Formation. A number of leading researchers in these fields have agreed to give invited talks. Proposals for additional presentations are welcome. Conference details and a preliminary Conference Schedule with confirmed speakers can be accessed at the Conference website: http://www.astro.ncu.edu.tw/clusters.

High Energy Processes and Phenomena in Astrophysics (IAU Symposium 214) (5-10 August, 2002 @ Suzhou, China)
An international conference entitled 'High Energy Processes and Phenomena in Astrophysics' (IAU Symposium 214) will be held in Suzhou, China (about 1 hour NW of Shanghai by train), 5-10 August 2002. The scientific focus includes the processes that are shared by many astrophysical sources (accretion, acceleration, collimation, radiation mechanisms), the objects that exhibit them (quasars and pulsars, supernovae and gamma ray bursters, black holes and X-ray binaries), and the connections between recent observations and the underlying mechanisms. Confirmed speakers include Roger Blandford, Felix Mirabel, Steve Murray, Zhen-ru Wang, Dick McCray, Guenther Hasinger, Virginia Trimble, A. Zdziarski, Roger Chevalier, Richard Manchester, Juri Poutanen, and Ian George. All participants have space for poster presentations (with a subset selected for oral presentation), and there is some IAU travel money is available for (a) young astronomers and (b) people coming from non-prosperous countries. For further information, registration, submission of titles and abstracts, requests for travel support, details of the locale, etc, please consult the Symposium Web sites: SOC: http://cosmos.colorado.edu/IAU214, LOC: http://jets.pmo.ac.cn/iau214.html.

International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics (2-14 June, 2002 @ Erice, Italy)
'Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology' is the theme for the 25th Anniversary Course of the International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics held biennially at the Ettore Majorana Centre in Erice, Italy. The coming course is scheduled for 2-14 June 2002 and is designed for advanced graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in high energy astrophysics. Topics range from X-rays and gamma rays to particles and neutrinos; from nucleosynthesis to cosmology; and from low to the highest energies. Lectures will be presented by leading researchers in the various fields. Interested participants should contact the Director, M. M. Shapiro at mmshapiro@mailaps.org (fax: 775-640-8342) as soon as possible to apply for admission. Further details at http://phacts.phys.Lsu.edu/ISCRA/.

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HEADNEWS, the electronic newsletter of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society, is issued twice yearly by the HEAD Secretary-Treasurer. The HEAD Executive Committee Members are:

    Comments, questions, or feedback to headsec@aas.org, Updated May 20, 2001